Petroleum Conservation Research Association
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India
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Conservation Tips Print
- Conservation Tips
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- Industries Audited
- Energy Audit
- Energy Audit Instrument
- Energy Audits of Current Year
- Undertake regular energy audits.
- Plug all oil leakage. Leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to a loss of over 2000 liters/year.
- Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil affect combustion.
- Pre-heat the oil. For proper combustion, oil should be at right viscosity at the burner tip. Provide adequate Pre-heat capacity.
- Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel. Observe the colour of smoke emitted from chimney. Black smoke indicates improper combustion and fuel wastage. White smoke indicates excess air & hence loss of heat. Hazy brown smoke indicates proper combustion.
- Use of Low air pressure “film burners” helps save oil upto 15% in furnaces.
- Recover & utilize waste heat from furnace flue gase for preheating of combustion air. Every 21°C rise in combustion air temperature results in 1% fuel oil savings.
- Control excess air in furnaces. A 10% drop in excess air amounts to 1% saving of fuel in furnaces. For an annual consumption of 3000 kl. of furnace oil. This means a saving of Rs 7.5 Lacs. (Cost of furnace oil-Rs. 25 per litre).
- Reduce heat losses through furnace openings. Observations show that a furnace operating at a temperature of 1000°C having an open door (1500mm*750mm) results in a fuel loss of 10 lit/hr. For a 4000 hrs. furnace operation this translates into a loss of approx. Rs. 10 Lacs per year.
- Improve insulation if the surface temperature exceeds 20°C above ambient. Studies have revealed that heat loss form a furnace wall 115mm thick at 650°C amounting to 2650 Kcal/m2/hr can be cut down to 850 kcal/m2/he by using 65 mm thick insulation on the 115 mm wall.
- Proper design of lids of melting furnaces and training of operators to close lids helps reduce losses by 10-20% in foundries.
- Remove soot deposits when flue gas temperature raises 40°C above the normal. A coating of 3mm thick soot on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption of as much as 2.5%.
- Recover heat from steam condense. For every 6°C rise in boiler feed water temperature through condense return, there is 1% saving in fuel.
- Improve boiler efficiency. Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses, incomplete combustion, blow down losses, excess air etc. Proper control can decrease the consumption upto 20%.
- Use only treated water in boilers. A scale formation of 1mm thickness on the waterside would increase fuel consumption by 5-8%.
- Stop steam leakage. Steam leakage from a 3 mm-diameter hole on a pipeline carrying steam at 7kg/cm2 would waste 32 kl of fuel oil per year amounting to a loss of Rs. 7.5 Lacs.
- Maintain steam pipe insulation. It has been estimated that a bare steam pipe, 150 mm in diameter and 100m in length, carrying saturated steam at 8kg/cm2 would waste 25 kl of furnace oil in a year amounting to an annual loss of Rs. 6.25 Lacs.
- Maintain diesel engines regularly.
- A poorly maintained injection pump increases fuel consumption by 4Gms/KWH.
- A faulty nozzle increases fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
- Blocked filters increase fuel consumption by 2Gms/KWH.
- A continuously running DG set can generate 0.5 Ton/Hr of steam at 10 to 12 bars from the residual heat of the engine exhaust per MW of the generator capacity.
- Measure fuel consumption per KWH of electricity generated regularly. Take corrective action in case this shows a rising trend.
Tips for Electrical Energy Conservation
- Improve power factor by installing capacitors to reduce KVA demand charges and also line losses within plant.
- Improvement of power factor from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak KVA and 21.6% reduction in peak losses. This corresponds to 14.5% reduction in average losses for a load factor of 0.8.
- Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Observations show that rewound motors practically have an efficiency loss of upto 5%. This is mainly due to increase in no load losses. Hence use such rewound motors on low duty cycle applications only.
- Use of variable frequency drives, slip power recovery systems and fluid couplings for variable speed applications such as fans, pumps etc. helps in minimizing consumption.
- Use of electronic ballast in place of conventional choke saves energy upto 20%.
- Use of CFL lamp in place of GLS lamp can save energy upto 70%.
- Clean the lamps & fixtures regularly. Illumination levels fall by 20-30% due to collection of dust.
- Use of 36W tubelight instead of 40 W tubelight saves electricity by 8 to 10%.
- Use of sodium vapour lamps for area lighting in place of Mercury vapour lamps saves electricity upto 40%.
- Compressed air is very energy intensive. Only 5% of electrical energy are converted to useful energy. Use of compressed air for cleaning is rarely justified.
- Ensure low temperature of inlet air. Increase in inlet air temperature by 3°C increases power consumption by 1%.
- It should be examined whether air at lower pressure can be used in the process. Reduction in discharge pressure by 10% saves energy consumption upto 5%.
- A leakage from a ½” diameter hole from a compressed air line working at a pressure of 7kg/cm2 can drain almost Rs. 2500 per day.
- Air output of compressors per unit of electricity input must be measured at regular intervals. Efficiency of compressors tends to deteriorate with time.
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
- Use of double doors, automatic door closers, air curtains, double glazed windows, polyester sun films etc. reduces heat ingress and air-conditioning load of buildings.
- Maintain condensers for proper heat exchange. A 5°C decrease in evaporator temperature increases the specific power consumption by 15%.
- Utillisation of air-conditioned/refrigerated space should be examined and efforts made to reduce cooling load as far as possible.
- Utillise waste heat of excess steam or flue gases to change over from gas compression systems to absorption chilling systems and save energy costs in the range of 50-70%.
- Specific power consumption of compressors should be measured at regular intervals. The most efficient compressors to be used for continuous duty and others on standby.
- Replacement of inefficient aluminum or fabricated steel fans by moulded FRP fans with aerofoil designs results in electricity savings in the range of 15-0%.
- A study on a typical 20ft. diameter fan revealed that replacing wooden blade drift eliminators with newly developed cellular PVC drift eliminators reduces the drift losses from 0.01-0.02% with a fan power energy saving of 10%.
- Install automatic ON-OFF switching of cooling tower fans and save upto 40% on electricity costs.
- Use of PVC fills in place of wooden bars results in a saving in pumping power of upto 20%.
- Improper selection of pumps can lead to large wastage of energy. A pump with 85% efficiency at rated flow may have only 65% efficiency at half the flow.
- Use of throttling valves instead of variable speed drives to change flow of fluids is a wasteful practice. Throttling can cause wastage of power to the tune of 50 to 60%.
- It is advisable to use a number of pumps in series and parallel to cope with variations in operating conditions by switching on or off pumps rather than running one large pump with partial load.
- Drive transmission between pumps & motors is very important. Loose belts can cause energy loss upto 1-20%.
- Modern synthetic flat belts in place of conventional V-belts can save 5% to 10% of energy.
- Properly organized maintenance is very important. Efficiency of worn out pumps can drop by 10-15% unless maintained properly.
- Energy Auditors empanelment scheme
Besides these, PCRA also conducts Energy audits, Fuel Oil diagnostic studies, Studies in small scale industries, Follow-up’s; Organizes technical meets, Consumer meets, Seminars, Institutional training programmers, Workshops, Clinics; helps in organizing Action Group meetings and puts up stalls in exhibitions on conservation of petroleum products