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संरक्षण युक्तियाँ

THERMAL UTILITIES

Boilers

  • Preheat combustion air with waste heat
  • (22 oc reduction in flue gas temperature increases boiler efficiency by 1%).
  • Use variable speed drives on large boiler combustion air fans with variable flows.
  • Burn wastes if permitted.
  • Insulate exposed heated oil tanks.1
  • Clean burners, nozzles, strainers, etc.
  • Inspect oil heaters for proper oil temperature.
  • Close burner air and/or stack dampers when the burner is off to minimize heat loss up the stack.
  • Improve oxygen trim control (e.g. -- limit excess air to less than 10% on clean fuels). (5% reduction in excess air increases boiler efficiency by 1% or: 1% reduction of residual oxygen in stack gas increases boiler efficiency by 1%.)
  • Automate/optimize boiler blowdown. Recover boiler blowdown heat.
  • Use boiler blowdown to help warm the back-up boiler.
  • Optimize deaerator venting.
  • Inspect door gaskets.
  • Inspect for scale and sediment on the water side
  • (A 1 mm thick scale (deposit) on the water side could increase fuel consumption by 5 to 8%).
  • Inspect for soot, flyash, and slag on the fire side (A 3 mm thick soot deposition on the heat transfer surface can cause an increase in fuel consumption to the tune of 2.5%.)
  • Optimize boiler water treatment.
  • Add an economizer to preheat boiler feedwater using exhaust heat.
  • Recycle steam condensate.
  • Study part-load characteristics and cycling costs to determine the most-efficient mode for operating multiple boilers.
  • Consider multiple or modular boiler units instead of one or two large boilers.
  • Establish a boiler efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a boiler efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.

Steam System 

  •  Fix steam leaks and condensate leaks (A 3 mm diameter hole on a pipe line carrying 7 kg/cm2 steam would waste 33 kilo litres of fuel oil per year).
  • Accumulate work orders for repair of steam leaks that can't be fixed during the heating season due to system shutdown requirements. Tag each such leak with a durable tag with a good description.
  • Use back pressure steam turbines to produce lower steam pressures.
  • Use more-efficient steam desuperheating methods. 2
  • Ensure process temperatures are correctly controlled.
  • Maintain lowest acceptable process steam pressures.
  • Reduce hot water wastage to drain.
  • Remove or blank off all redundant steam piping.
  • Ensure condensate is returned or re-used in the process(6 0C raise in feed water temperature by economiser/condensate recovery
  • corresponds to a 1% saving in fuel consumption, in boiler).
  • Preheat boiler feed-water.
  • Recover boiler blowdown.
  • Check operation of steam traps.
  • Remove air from indirect steam using equipment (0.25 mm thick air film offers the same resistance to heat transfer as a 330 mm thick copper wall.)
  • Inspect steam traps regularly and repair malfunctioning traps promptly.
  • Consider recovery of vent steam (e.g. -- on large flash tanks).
  • Use waste steam for water heating.
  • Use an absorption chiller to condense exhaust steam before returning the condensate to the boiler.
  • Use electric pumps instead of steam ejectors when cost benefits permit
  • Establish a steam efficiency-maintenance program. Start with an energy audit and follow-up, then make a steam efficiency-maintenance program a part of your continuous energy management program.